The total length of the infested waterways was about 27,000 km in the mid-1990s. American Secretary of State John Foster Dulles and President Dwight Eisenhower told Nasser that the U.S. would supply him with weapons only if they were used for defensive purposes and if he accepted American military personnel for supervision and training. The High Dam has resulted in protection from floods and droughts, an increase in agricultural production and employment, electricity production, and improved navigation that also benefits tourism. By 2003, more than 2 million hectares have been equipped with a subsurface drainage system at a cost from 1973 to 2002 of about $3.1 billion.. Like the earlier implementation, the High Dam has had a significant effect on the economy and culture of Egypt. ILRI publ.  About half a million families were settled on these new lands. Power generation began in 1967. , Before the construction of the High Dam, the 50,000 km of irrigation and drainage canals in Egypt had to be dredged regularly to remove sediments. Expansion of perennial irrigation systems in Egypt did not depend on the high dam.  Initially, both the United States and the USSR were interested in helping development of the dam. This is a relatively high irrigation efficiency. 42. International Institute for Land Reclamation and Improvement, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Complications ensued due to their rivalry during the Cold War, as well as growing intra-Arab tensions. Aswan Map - Egypt - Mapcarta Africa Moreover, you'll be surprised to see how many monuments and sites this small city has to offer. This continuous reuse accounts for the high overall efficiency. Sediment deposited in the reservoir is lowering the water storage capacity of Lake Nasser. The High Dam allowed Egypt to reclaim about 2.0 million feddan (840,000 hectares) in the Nile Delta and along the Nile Valley, increasing the country's irrigated area by a third. , Though the Czech arms deal created an incentive for the US to invest at Aswan, the UK cited the deal as a reason for repeal its promise of dam funds. On other previously irrigated land, yields increased because water could be made available at critical low-flow periods. [clarification needed] A new fishing industry has been created around Lake Nasser, though it is struggling due to its distance from any significant markets. Explore Aswan High Dam in Aswan, Egypt as it appears on Google Maps as well as pictures, stories and other notable nearby locations on VirtualGlobetrotting.com. Both these events had continued to occur periodically. Areas far from the river which never received the Nile floods before are now being irrigated. With all the issues that occurred in 2010 and just after, this revisit was peaceful and hassle free. During summer when evaporation was highest, the groundwater level was too deep to allow salts dissolved in the water to be pulled to the surface through capillary action. Aswan Dam, Egypt, 20th century. S. haematobium has since disappeared altogether. Check flight prices and hotel availability for your visit. Housing and facilities were built for 47 village units whose relationship to each other approximated that in Old Nubia. In 1955, Nasser was claiming to be the leader of Arab nationalism, in opposition to the traditional monarchies, especially the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq following its signing of the 1955 Baghdad Pact. , The earliest recorded attempt to build a dam near Aswan was in the 11th century, when the Arab polymath and engineer Ibn al-Haytham (known as Alhazen in the West) was summoned to Egypt by the Fatimid Caliph, Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, to regulate the flooding of the Nile, a task requiring an early attempt at an Aswan Dam. The Aswan High Dam in Egypt, an earthen embankment constructed over a period of ten years, was completed in 1970. Part of this could be due to the large number of subsurface drainage projects executed in the last decades to control the water table and soil salinity. Ð¾Ð²Ð¸ÑÐ½Ð° ÑÑÐµÐ½Ð°, áá¡á£áááá¡ ááá¨á®ááá, áá¡á£áááá¡ ááá¨á®áááá, à´ à´¸àµà´µà´¾àµ» à´ à´£à´àµà´àµà´àµà´àµ, áá¡á£áááá¨ ááá¨á®ááá, The monument of Friendship between Egypt and Soviet Union. The enormous rock and clay dam was designed by the Soviet Hydroproject Institute along with some Egyptian engineers. In addition to his development plans, he looked to quickly modernize his military, and he turned first to the U.S. for aid. Aswan is about 680 kilometers south of Cairo, the capital of Egypt. Nasser planned on the revenues generated by the canal to help fund construction of the High Dam. By the 1950s only a small proportion of Upper Egypt had not been converted from basin (low transmission) to perennial (high transmission) irrigation. In Sudan, 50,000 to 70,000 Sudanese Nubians were moved from the old town of Wadi Halfa and its surrounding villages. The Aswan Dam is an embankment dam situated across the Nile River in Aswan, Egypt.Since the 1950s, the name commonly refers to the High Dam, which is larger and newer than the Aswan Low Dam, which was first completed in 1902. It is situated at the northern border between Sudan and Egypt. The climate there had a regular rainy season as opposed to their previous desert habitat in which virtually no rain fell. It is a massive structure that is 4,000 metres long, 980 metres wide at the base and 40 metres wide at the crest. Up to 11,000 cubic metres of water per second can pass through the dam. Discover and book Aswan: Private Guided Tour to High Dam, The Obelisk & Philae Temple by Boat on Tripadvisor Enjoy your tripâ¦ These monuments were granted to countries that helped with the works: These items were removed to the garden area of the Sudan National Museum of Khartoum:. Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation, Egyptian Public Authority for Drainage Projects, Drainage Research Institute, 2006: Abul-Ata, Abdel Azim, "Egypt and the Nile after the Construction of the High Aswan Dam", Ministry of Irrigation and Land Reclamation, Cairo, 1978, quoted by Asit Biswas and Cecilia Tortajada, 2004, Professor Fouad Ibrahim, an Egyptian geoscientist teaching in Germany in a 1982 article quoted by Peter Wald:"25 Years Later:The Aswan High Dam Has Proven its Worth", Development and Cooperation 2/96, p.20–21, Reis, Michael (1999), Who is who in Ancient Egypt, p.48. This place is situated in Aswan, Upper Egypt, Egypt, its geographical coordinates are 24° 5' 15" North, 32° 53' 56" East and its original name (with diacritics) is AswÄn. Although the Low Dam was almost overtopped in 1946, the government of King Farouk showed no interest in Daninos's plans. There are 3 ways to get from Aswan Dam to Luxor by train, taxi or car. On 27 September 1955, Nasser announced an arms deal, with Czechoslovakia acting as a middleman for the Soviet support. My first time was December 2010 and this visit in January 2020. Aswan High Dam was completed with a cost of $1 billion in 1970 and was inaugurated by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat in January 1971. The average salt concentration of the drainage water evacuated into the sea and the coastal lakes is 2.7 kilograms per cubic metre (4.6 lb/cu yd). However, there were a lot more tourists. Booking.com. Based on the success of the Low Dam, then at its maximum utilization, construction of the High Dam became a key objective of the government following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952; with its ability to better control flooding, provide increased water storage for irrigation and generate hydroelectricity the dam was seen as pivotal to Egypt's planned industrialization. Find out where it is and what the closest landmarks are on our interactive map. In 1958, the USSR proceeded to provide support for the High Dam project. Map of Aswan area hotels: Locate Aswan hotels on a map based on popularity, price, or availability, and see Tripadvisor reviews, photos, and deals. After construction of the dam, aquatic weeds grew much faster in the clearer water, helped by fertilizer residues. Map of Aswan Aswan is the southernmost city in Egypt, and had the name Abu ("elephant") in Ancient Egypt.It was also called Swenet, and in Coptic the city was named Sawan which later has become today's name Aswan. However, in the event of all these vital aspects, the dam flooded a significantly large area resulting in the relocation of many people, coastline erosion, soil salinity, and health complications. The Aswan Dam and its reservoir (darker blue), however, can be seen in the lower part of the image. It is about 111 metres tall containing 43 million cubic metres of material.  After the UN criticized a raid by Israel against Egyptian forces in Gaza in 1955, Nasser realized that he could not portray himself as the leader of pan-Arab nationalism if he could not defend his country militarily against Israel. The Egyptian position changed completely after the overthrow of the monarchy, led by the Free Officers Movement including Gamal Abdel Nasser.  Also, the annual spread of sediment due to the Nile floods occurred along the banks of the Nile. The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is an embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, ... Unionpedia is a concept map or semantic network organized like an encyclopedia â dictionary. Conversely, the dam flooded a large area, causing the relocation of over 100,000 people. Source: Google Earth. For example, the sardine catch off the Egyptian coast declined from 18,000 tons in 1962 to a mere 460 tons in 1968, but then gradually recovered to 8,590 tons in 1992. Nasser did not accept these conditions, and consulted the USSR for support.  One observer notes: "The impacts of the Aswan High Dam (...) have been overwhelmingly positive. The Aswan Dam, or more specifically since the 1960s, the Aswan High Dam, is the world's largest embankment dam built across the Nile in Aswan, Egypt, between 1960 and 1970. Before the High Dam was built, even with the old dam in place, the annual flooding of the Nile during late summer had continued to pass largely unimpeded down the valley from its East African drainage basin. Modern Architecture at the Aswan High Dam Yearly Nile floods have been both a blessing and a course since the days of pharaohs, but it wasnât until when the mighty river was finally controlled. Many archaeological sites were submerged while others were relocated. Irrigated land was provided to grow mainly sugar cane. According to one estimate, the annual economic benefit of the High Dam immediately after its completion was E£255 million, $587 million using the exchange rate in 1970 of $2.30 per E£1): £140 million from agricultural production, £100 million from hydroelectric generation, £10 million from flood protection, and £5 million from improved navigation. Welcome to the Aswan google satellite map! The following table shows that the equal distribution of irrigation water over the branch canals taking off from the one main irrigation canal, the Mansuriya Canal near Giza, leaves much to be desired:, The salt concentration of the water in the Aswan reservoir is about 0.25 kilograms per cubic metre (0.42 lb/cu yd), a very low salinity level. In addition, about 1 million feddan (420,000 hectares), mostly in Upper Egypt, were converted from flood irrigation with only one crop per year to perennial irrigation allowing two or more crops per year. It is about 111 metres tall containing 43 million cubic metres of material. The coastline erodes an estimated 125–175 m (410–574 ft) per year. Hence, the overall irrigation efficiency is 38/46 = 0.826 or 83%. When the Suez War broke out, the United Kingdom, France, and Israel seized the canal and the Sinai. Baraket, R. Epidemiology of Schistosomiasis in Egypt: Travel through Time: Review. Taking just over ten years to build, the High Dam cost nearly $1 billion. , The dams also protected Egypt from the droughts in 1972–73 and 1983–87 that devastated East and West Africa. Deprived of sediment, they started using the older alluvium of otherwise arable land taking out of production up to 120 square kilometers annually, with an estimated 1,000 square kilometers destroyed by 1984 when the government prohibited, "with only modest success," further excavation. On the Egyptian side, the project was led by Osman Ahmed Osman's Arab Contractors. President Nasser launches construction of the Aswan High Dam project.Map of Egypt depicts location of Aswan. It holds 132 cubic kilometres (1.73×1011 cu yd) of water. Estimates by various national and international experts put this drop at between 2 and 10 meters. The visit to the Aswan High Dam was my second visit to this place. Egyptian workmen arrive on train. , Drainage through subsurface drains and drainage channels is essential to prevent a deterioration of crop yields from waterlogging and soil salinization caused by irrigation. As Egypt's population grew and technology increased, both a desire and the ability developed to completely control the flooding, and thus both protect and support farmland and its economically important cotton crop. , 22 monuments and architectural complexes that were threatened by flooding from Lake Nasser, including the Abu Simbel temples, were preserved by moving them to the shores of the lake under the UNESCO Nubia Campaign. Aswan dam is a concrete embankment dam that is built across the Nile River in Egypt. , The dam powers twelve generators each rated at 175 megawatts (235,000 hp), with a total of 2.1 gigawatts (2,800,000 hp). For a full list of accommodation options available on your travel dates use the map below. Because of this and the increased presence of nutrients from fertilizers in the water, more algae grow in the Nile. Although the Dam has contributed to some environmental problems, these have proved to be significantly less severe than was generally expected, or currently believed by many people. The Aswan High Dam is 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) long, 980 m (3,220 ft) wide at the base, 40 m (130 ft) wide at the crest and 111 m (364 ft) tall. A journey is best measured in friends, rather than miles. He was also irritated by Nasser's neutrality and attempts to play both sides of the Cold War. Note that north is to the lower right in this photograph. It is considered as an all-time favourite winter destination. It is also located north of Aswan Dam. The magnitude of the High Aswan dam's impact on the landscape of Southern Egypt can be demonstrated through the shear destruction of countless cities along the Nile. The Aswan High Dam is said to be the largest embankment dam built across tge River Nile. This story takes you through more such interesting facts about this dam. In 1995, the output of salt was higher than the influx, and Egypt's agricultural lands were desalinizing. â¦ " Another observer disagreed and he recommended that the dam should be torn down. However, this natural flooding varied, since high-water years could destroy the whole crop, while low-water years could create widespread drought and associated famine. The nutrient value added to the land by the sediment was only 6,000 tons of potash, 7,000 tons of phosphorus pentoxide and 17,000 tons of nitrogen. , The red-brick construction industry, which consisted of hundreds of factories that used Nile sediment deposits along the river, has also been negatively affected. Egyptian Water Use Management Project (EWUP), 1984. When the High Dam first reached peak output it produced around half of Egypt's production of electric power (about 15 percent by 1998), and it gave most Egyptian villages the use of electricity for the first time. aswan dam topographic map natural color top view - aswan dam stock pictures, royalty-free photos & images. Satellite image showing the northern Nile River and Nile Delta on the southeastern margin of the Mediterranean Sea, as well as the Gulf of Suez, Gulf of Elat and northernmost Red Sea in the Egyptian Desert. Click on each icon to see what it is. With the disappearance of the annual flood and heavy year-round irrigation, groundwater levels remained high with little fluctuation leading to waterlogging. At the time of its construction, total cost, including unspecified "subsidiary projects" and the extension of electric power lines, amounted to £450 million. EPA – 600/1-78-070. Factories for the fishing industry and packaging have been set up near the Lake. At that time the U.S. feared that communism would spread to the Middle East, and it saw Nasser as a natural leader of an anticommunist procapitalist Arab League. 25,000 Egyptian engineers and workers contributed to the construction of the dams.  Drainage through sub-surface drains and drainage channels is essential to prevent a deterioration of crop yields from soil salinization and waterlogging. The reservoir storage capacity is 162 km3, including 31 km3 dead storage at the bottom of the lake below 147 m above sea level, 90 km3 live storage, and 41 km3 of storage for high flood waters above 175m above sea level. The Aswan High Dam is said to be the largest embankment dam built across tge River Nile. , The British began construction of the first dam across the Nile in 1898. United States Environment Protection Agency. Get directions, maps, and traffic for Aswan, . See Aswan photos and images from satellite below, explore the aerial photographs of â¦  His field work convinced him of the impracticality of this scheme. Construction lasted until 1902 and the dam was opened on 10 December 1902. Apparently few experts had expected that water quality in the Nile would actually decrease because of the High Dam. , In 2019–20, Egypt started to compensate the Nubians who lost their homes following the dam impoundment. Location of Aswan Dam on the map of Egypt. It contains 43,000,000 cubic metres (56,000,000 cu yd) of material. Journal of Advanced Research (2013) 4, 425–432, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Water resources management in modern Egypt, New Halfa Agricultural Development Scheme, List of conventional hydroelectric power stations, "The spectacular failures and successes of massive dams", "Aswan Dam Revisited: The Benefits of a Much-Maligned Dam", Estimating the evaporation over Nasser Lake in the Upper Egypt from Meteosat observations, "A comparative survey of dam-induced resettlement in 50 cases", "Egypt's PM witnesses compensation of Nubians displaced by dam construction", an account of early plans to construct the Aswan Dam, View the official opening of the Aswan Dam in 1971, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aswan_Dam&oldid=998644043, Buildings and structures in Aswan Governorate, Articles with dead external links from October 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from October 2020, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from June 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2017, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1964: First dam construction stage completed, reservoir started filling, The tomb of the Nubian prince Djehuti-hotep at, The granite columns from the Faras Cathedral, This page was last edited on 6 January 2021, at 10:31. 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