geography of canada

In addition to the French, the English also began exploring Canada for its fur and fish trade and in 1670 established the Hudson's Bay Company. A province by province tour from east to west of the best tourism and natural attractions of Canada. Choose from 500 different sets of canada geography flashcards on Quizlet. The ground in the Arctic is mostly composed of permafrost, making construction difficult and often hazardous, and agriculture virtually impossible. It is mostly drained by the economically important St. Lawrence River and its tributaries, notably the Saguenay, Manicouagan and Ottawa rivers. Boreal forests cover much of the country, with ice taking over the northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the flat Canadian Prairies of agriculture occupying the southwest. By total area … Farther west is the rugged Canadian Cordillera, stretching from the Yukon Territory into British Columbia and Alberta. British Columbia is the province located the farthest west in Canada and is bounded by the Alaska Panhandle, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, Alberta and the U.S. states of Montana, Idaho and Washington. The eastern portion of the country is the most industrialized but Vancouver, British Columbia, a major seaport, and Calgary, Alberta, are some western cities that are highly industrialized as well. The plains generally describes the expanses of (largely flat) arable agricultural land which sustain extensive grain farming operations in the southern part of the provinces. The Canadian Rockies are part of a major continental divide that extends north and south through western North America and western South America. It joined Canada in 1870 followed by British Columbia in 1871 and Prince Edward Island in 1873. Some particular regions of the Shield are referred to as mountain ranges, including the Torngat and Laurentian Mountains. It is the second largest country (by area) in the world. This page features maps and worksheets for Canada's 10 provinces and 3 territories. On the south coast of British Columbia, Vancouver Island is separated from the mainland by the continuous Juan de Fuca, Georgia, and Johnstone Straits. Wollaston Lake lies on the boundary between the Hudson Bay and Arctic Ocean watersheds and drains into both. Many of the volcanic belts bear ore deposits that are related to the volcanism. The Arctic, when defined as everything north of the tree line, covers most of Nunavut and the northernmost parts of Northwest Territories, Yukon, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Labrador. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. [61], The northernmost point of land within the boundaries of Canada is Cape Columbia, Ellesmere Island, Nunavut 83°06′40″N 69°58′19″W / 83.111°N 69.972°W / 83.111; -69.972 (Cape Columbia, Nunavut). In the east, the mountainous maritime provinces have an irregular coastline on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic. Mount Columbia, the highest point in Alberta, stands at 3,747m (12,294 ft) high. [17] Temperature extremes in Canada range from 45.0 °C (113.0 °F) in Midale[19] and Yellow Grass, Saskatchewan, on 5 July 1937, to −63.0 °C (−81.4 °F) in Snag, Yukon, on 3 February 1947.[20]. Immediately west of the Columbia Mountains is a large and rugged Interior Plateau, encompassing the Chilcotin and Cariboo regions in central British Columbia (the Fraser Plateau), the Nechako Plateau further north, and also the Thompson Plateau in the south. [56], Canada shares with the U.S. the world's longest binational border at 8,893 kilometres (5,526 mi); 2,477 kilometres (1,539 mi) are with Alaska. The Peace River Valley in northeastern British Columbia is Canada's most northerly agricultural region, although it is part of the Prairies. That settlement, called Port Royal, was located in what is now Nova Scotia. The United States is the only country that borders Canada. The most recent was in 1995 but it failed by a vote of 50.6% to 49.4%. Canada’s industry and land use vary based on region. Canada is the world's second-largest country by area but its population, at slightly less than that of the state of California, is small by comparison. The geography and climate of Canada are important factors that shape life for those who settle in Canada. Canada is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy and federation. [18] Parts of Western Canada have a semi-arid climate, and parts of Vancouver Island can even be classified as a warm-summer Mediterranean climate. The southern portions of the Shield are covered with boreal forests while the northern parts are tundra because it is too far north for trees. The Canadian Cordillera, contiguous with the American cordillera, is bounded by the Rocky Mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. [3] Of Canada's thirteen provinces and territories, only two are landlocked (Alberta and Saskatchewan) while the other eleven all directly border one of three oceans. These plains are famous for their raising of livestock and agriculture. By land area alone, however, Canada ranks fourth, the difference being due to it having the world's largest proportion of fresh water lakes. GEOGRAPHY Canada is a vast and rugged land. It's the second largest country in the world, and it has the largest bay that freezes over—oh, Canada! Canada's largest cities are Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, and Calgary. [62] The northernmost point of the Canadian mainland is Zenith Point on Boothia Peninsula, Nunavut 72°00′07″N 94°39′18″W / 72.002°N 94.655°W / 72.002; -94.655 (Zenith Point, Nunavut). Canada has a vast geography that occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. In Quebec the official language at the provincial level is French and there have been several Francophone initiatives to ensure that the language remains prominent there. Canada's abundance of natural resources is reflected in their continued importance in the economy of Canada. Since geography is the study of the world, it’s really important for us to make sure we include it as part of our learning with our kids [40] Canada also encompasses vast maritime terrain, with the world's longest coastline of 243,042 kilometres (151,019 mi). It has three branches of government. Download Geography of Canada App 1.0.0 for iPad & iPhone free online at AppPure. Canada is currently warming at twice the global average, and this is effectively irreversible. What is the mountain range called between British Columbia and Alberta? [50] The eruption produced a 22.5-kilometre (14.0 mi) lava flow, and, according to Nisga'a legend, blocked the flow of the Nass River.[51]. It is a part of the Pacific Northwest and is Canada's third most populated province behind Ontario and Quebec. The pillow lavas in rocks over 2 billion years old in the Canadian Shield signify that great oceanic volcanoes existed during the early stages of the formation of the Earth's crust. Volcanism has also occurred in the Canadian Shield. The headwaters of the Yukon River, the largest and longest of the rivers on the Pacific Slope, lie in northern British Columbia at Atlin and Teslin Lakes. Extensively developed in British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Labrador, the many dams have long provided a clean, dependable source of energy. The first is the executive, which consists of the head of state, who is represented by a governor general, and the prime minister, who is considered the head of government. Canada has 7,200 square kilometres (2,800 mi2) of irrigated land (1993 estimate). Canada is geologically active, having many earthquakes and potentially active volcanoes, notably the Mount Meager massif, Mount Garibaldi, the Mount Cayley massif, and the Mount Edziza volcanic complex. United States & Canada Physical Geography The great plains are located to the west of the Interior Plains. The southern plains are mostly grass and the north is forested. They are grouped into five volcanic belts with different volcano types and tectonic settings. [2] By total area (including its waters), Canada is the second-largest country in the world, after Russia. Canada has over 2 million lakes covering 7% of the land mass. Lesson Planet. Canada has a vast geography that occupies much of the continent of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous United States to the south and the U.S. state of Alaska to the northwest. Canada has more lakes than the rest of the world combined. Each of these elements eventually merges with the Mackenzie, thereby draining the vast majority of the Arctic watershed. This basin is most important in fighting drought in the prairies and producing hydroelectricity, especially in Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec. While Canada's crude oil deposits are fewer, technological developments in recent decades have opened up oil production in Alberta's Oil Sands to the point where Canada now has some of the largest reserves of oil in the world. [46], While the relief of these lowlands is particularly flat and regular, a group of batholites known as the Monteregian Hills are spread along a mostly regular line across the area. Canada claims 22 km (12 nmi) of territorial sea, a contiguous zone of 44 km (24 nmi), an exclusive economic zone of 5,599,077 km2 (2,161,816 sq mi) with 370 km (200 nmi) and a continental shelf of 370 km (200 nmi) or to the edge of the continental margin. In addition, agriculture and ranching play a significant role in the Prairie Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba) and several parts of the rest of the country. The Great Lakes and Lake Nipigon are also drained by the St. Lawrence. There are over 200 young volcanic centres that stretch northward from the Cascade Range to Yukon. Identifying and exploring Canada's six regions - Atlantic Canada, Quebec, Ontario, Western Canada, British Columbia, and the Territorial North - author Robert Bone guides students through the basic physical, historical, cultural, social, and economic features of each region, nurturing an appreciation of this country's amazing diversity. Canada’s national motto, A Mari usque ad Mare, or “ From Sea to Sea, ” captures the vastness of the nation, as the country quite literally stretches from the Pacific Ocean on its western coast to the … Alberta also produces 75% of Canada’s oil and is important for coal and natural gas. Five per cent of Canada's land area is arable, none of which is for permanent crops. This watershed irrigates the agriculturally important areas of inner British Columbia (such as the Okanagan and Kootenay valleys), and is used to produce hydroelectricity. In other forms, Canadian industry has a long history of extracting large coal and natural gas reserves. Tree-map of Canada's goods exports in 2017. Between the plateau and the coast is the province's largest mountain range, the Coast Mountains. [55], The continental divide in the Rockies separates the Pacific watershed in British Columbia and Yukon from the Arctic and Hudson Bay watersheds. Some symbols of Canada are the beaver and the maple leaf. The second branch is the legislative, a bicameral parliament consisting of the Senate and House of Commons. Cattle and sheep are raised in the valleys and plateaus of British Columbia. West of them is the large Yukon Plateau and, west of that, the Yukon Ranges and Saint Elias Mountains, which include Canada's and British Columbia's highest summits, Mount Saint Elias in Kluane National Park and Mount Fairweather in the Tatshenshini-Alsek region. [62], The southernmost point is Middle Island, in Lake Erie, Ontario (41°41′N 82°40′W); the southernmost water point lies just south of the island, on the Ontario–Ohio border (41°40′35″N). Major resource-based industries are fisheries, forestry, agriculture, petroleum products and mining. 13 U.S. states share a border with Canada: The Origins of British Columbia in Canada, Origins of the Saskatchewan Province of Canada, Canada's Population Estimates, Third Quarter 2018, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. Countless snow-capped mountains form the Canadian Rockies, with many reaching to 11,000 ft, or more. In 1713, a conflict developed between the English and French and the English won control of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Hudson Bay. [7] Three of Canada's Arctic islands, Baffin Island, Victoria Island and Ellesmere Island, are among the ten largest in the world. Ancient volcanoes play an important role in estimating Canada's mineral potential. This leaves the vast majority of Canada's territory as sparsely populated wilderness; Canada's population density is 3.5 people/km2 (9.1/mi2), among the lowest in the world. To the west of their headwaters, across the Rocky Mountain Trench, is a second belt of mountains, the Columbia Mountains, comprising the Selkirk, Purcell, Monashee and Cariboo Mountains sub-ranges. The Appalachian mountain range extends from Alabama through the Gaspé Peninsula and the Atlantic Provinces, creating rolling hills indented by river valleys. [48] The Shield mostly consists of eroded hilly terrain and contains many lakes and important rivers used for hydroelectric production, particularly in northern Quebec and Ontario. Canada is a large country. These hills are known for a great richness in precious minerals. It remained this size until 1949 when Newfoundland became the 10th province. Canada has a diverse climate. The region is known for its extensive mineral reserves.[49]. Canada is the largest country in North America. [62], The lowest point is sea level at 0 m,[64] whilst the highest point is Mount Logan, Yukon, at 5,959 m / 19,550 ft 60°34′01″N 140°24′18″W / 60.567°N 140.405°W / 60.567; -140.405 (Mount Logan, Yukon). Get Geography of Canada for iOS latest version. The shield also encloses an area of wetlands, the Hudson Bay lowlands. [41] The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. Even with its small population, Canada plays a large role in the world's economy and is one of the largest trading partners of the United States. The first Europeans to reach the country were likely the Vikings and it is believed that Norse explorer Leif Eriksson led them to the coast of Labrador or Nova Scotia in 1000 CE. Those straits include a large number of islands, notably the Gulf Islands and Discovery Islands. As the world’s second largest country, Canada’s geography changes significantly depending on which part you are in. The furthest straight-line distance that can be travelled to Canadian points of land is between the southwest tip of Kluane National Park and Reserve (next to Mount Saint Elias) and Cripple Cove, Newfoundland (near Cape Race) at a distance of 3,005.60 nautical miles (5,566.37 km; 3,458.78 mi). The bulk of oil and gas production occurs in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin (mostly light green), which stretches from southwestern Manitoba to northeastern British Columbia. At the federal level, however, the country is officially bilingual. Because of the long history of conflict between the English and French in Canada, a division between the two still exists in the country’s languages today. And with the differences in each region, there is a very different accompanying landscape and climate. [55], The Hudson Bay watershed drains over a third of Canada. Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive. The Milk River originates in the Rocky Mountains of Montana, then flows into Alberta, then returns into the United States, where it is drained by the Missouri River. The leader of Canada is called the Prime Minister. [47] The most notable are Montreal's Mount Royal and Mont Saint-Hilaire. Much of Canada's topography consists of gently rolling hills with rock outcrops because the Canadian Shield, an ancient region with some of the world's oldest known rocks, covers almost half of the country. [42] It also runs through parts of southern Quebec.[42]. Forestry has long been a major industry in Canada. It covers Manitoba, northern Ontario and Quebec, most of Saskatchewan, southern Alberta, southwestern Nunavut and the southern half of Baffin Island. In Canada, human geographers might study the status of Indigenous languages or differences between rural and urban Canadians, among many other topics. With an estimated three million lakes in Canada, there is more surface area of water in Canada than any other country. The dry, temperate climate of the Okanagan Valley in south central British Columbia provides ideal conditions for fruit growing and a flourishing wine industry; the semi-arid belt of the Southern Interior also includes the Fraser Canyon, and Thompson, Nicola, Similkameen, Shuswap and Boundary regions and fruit-growing is common in these areas also, and also in the West Kootenay. Canada's geographic proximity to the United States has historically bound the two countries together in the political world as well. Geography of Canada Chapter Exam Instructions. Agricultural regions in Canada include the Canadian Prairies, the Lower Mainland and various regions within the Interior of British Columbia, the St. Lawrence Basin and the Canadian Maritimes. The country then grew again in 1901 when Alberta and Saskatchewan joined Canada. There are significant dairy regions in central Nova Scotia, southern New Brunswick, the St. Lawrence Valley, northeastern Ontario, southwestern Ontario, the Red River valley of Manitoba and the valleys in the British Columbia Interior, on Vancouver Island and in the Lower Mainland. Canada's climate varies with location but the country is classified as being temperate in the south and arctic in the north. For historical political boundaries of Canada, see, History of the petroleum industry in Canada, List of highest points of Canadian provinces and territories, "Scientists shocked by Arctic permafrost thawing 70 years sooner than predicted", "Canada Facts: 25 Interesting and Fun Facts – not only for Kids", "The Atlas of Canada – Physical Components of Watersheds", "The High Subarctic Forest-Tundra of Northwestern Canada: Position, Width, and Vegetation Gradients in Relation to Climate", "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated", "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification", "Weather Data: Canada, Saskatchewan, Midale, 1937, July", "Canadian Climate Normals 1981–2010 Station Data", "Ottawa Macdonald Cartier International Airport", "Quebec/Jean Lesage International Airport", "Saskatoon Diefenbaker International Airport", "Winnipeg Richardson International Airport", "Canada's Worst Natural Disasters of All Time", "Population, urban and rural, by province and territory (Canada)", "Satellite imagery moves Hans Island boundary: report", "3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly", "The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada", "Canada warming up twice as fast as rest of the world, and it's 'irreversible': report", The Barren Lands Collection and Expedition maps, University of Toronto, The Barren Lands Collection, University of Toronto, World Wars and Interwar Years (1914–1945),, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 08:02. Canada For Students 8th - Higher Ed Standards. In the years after the Treaty of Paris, English colonists flocked to Canada from England and the United States. Greenland is to the northeast and to the southeast Canada shares a maritime boundary with France's overseas collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, the last vestige of New France. That war ended in 1763 and England was given full control of Canada with the Treaty of Paris. On the West Coast, tuna stocks are now restricted. In 1849, Canada was given the right to self-government and the country of Canada was officially established in 1867. The Columbia and the Fraser Rivers have their headwaters in the Canadian Rockies and are the second and third largest rivers respectively to drain to the west coast of North America. Within the field of human geography there are five main areas of study. Today these stocks are nearly depleted, and their conservation has become a preoccupation of the Atlantic Provinces. The Western Cordillera continues northwards past the Liard River in northernmost British Columbia to include the Mackenzie and Selwyn Ranges which lie in the far western Northwest Territories and the eastern Yukon Territory. Learn more about Canada’s beautiful and diverse landscape. Learn about Canada and it's provinces, territories, and capitals with this educational kids video and catchy song. The Chilcotin Group is believed to have formed as a result of back-arc extension behind the Cascadia subduction zone. [55], The northern parts of Alberta, Manitoba and British Columbia, most of Northwest Territories and Nunavut, and parts of Yukon are drained by the Arctic watershed. [62] The easternmost point of the Canadian mainland is Elijah Point, Cape St. Charles, Labrador (52°13′N 55°37′W) 52°13′01″N 55°37′16″W / 52.217°N 55.621°W / 52.217; -55.621 (Elijah Point, Labrador). A small area of southwestern Saskatchewan is drained by Battle Creek, which empties into the Milk River.[55]. The physical geography of Canada is widely varied. CANADA Geography SS6G5: The student will locate select features of Canada: Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, Hudson Bay, St. Lawrence River, the Great Lakes, the Canadian Shield, and the Rocky Mountains 3. There are six cities in Canada that have a population of over 1 … It is the largest lake in the world that naturally drains in two directions. The only temperate rain forests in Canada are found along the Pacific Coast in the Coast Mountains, on Vancouver Island, and on Haida Gwaii, and in the Cariboo Mountains on the eastern flank of the Plateau. [4] Much of the Canadian Arctic is covered by ice and permafrost. Forest products contribute to one fifth of the nation's exports. Canada's many rivers have afforded extensive development of hydroelectric power. Historical geography was not recognized as a distinct field of university teaching and research in Canada until the 1950s. Learn canada geography with free interactive flashcards. The third branch is made up of the Supreme Court. [53], Canada's two longest rivers are the Mackenzie, which empties into the Arctic Ocean and drains a large part of northwestern Canada, and the St. Lawrence, which drains the Great Lakes and empties into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Notable mountains in the Appalachians include Mount Jacques-Cartier (Quebec, 1,268 m or 4,160 ft), Mount Carleton (New Brunswick, 817 m or 2,680 ft), The Cabox (Newfoundland, 814 m or 2,671 ft). The main biomes of Canada are: Canada is divided into ten provinces and three territories. If you're a geography buff, this quiz is for you! Canada is the second-largest country by total area in the world after Russia, covering an area of 9,984,670 sq km (3,855,100 sq miles). [62], The westernmost point is Boundary Peak 187 (60°18′22.929″N 141°00′7.128″W) at the southern end of the Yukon–Alaska border, which roughly follows 141°W but leans very slightly east as it goes North 60°18′04″N 141°00′36″W / 60.301°N 141.010°W / 60.301; -141.010 (Boundary Peak 187). … Canada Geography quiz geography quiz - just click on the map to answer the questions about the provinces and territories in Canada In this geography of Canada lesson plan, students locate features such as rivers, lakes, cities, provinces, and more. [58] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry. [59] Metal smelting, coal-burning utilities, and vehicle emissions impact agricultural and forest productivity. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic, making Canada one of the world's largest producers. The fisheries industry has historically been one of Canada's strongest. [10] Canada has over 2,000,000 lakes—563 greater than 100 km2 (39 sq mi)—which is more than any other country, containing much of the world's fresh water. The Canadian Shield is known for its vast minerals, such as emeralds, diamonds and copper. Major elements are the Yukon, Columbia and Fraser rivers. Fossil fuels are a more recently developed resource in Canada, with oil and gas being extracted from deposits in the Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin since the mid 1900s. British Columbia has a long history that still shows throughout much of … Since the end of the Cold War, there has been growing speculation that Canada's Arctic maritime claims may become increasingly important if global warming melts the ice enough to open the Northwest Passage. The majority of Canada's southern border runs straight along the 49th parallel (49 degrees north latitude), while the border along and east of the Great Lakes is jagged. Major elements of this watershed include Lake Winnipeg, Nelson River, the North Saskatchewan and South Saskatchewan Rivers, Assiniboine River, and Nettilling Lake on Baffin Island. The boreal forests account for four-fifths of Canada's forestland. The Appalachian mountains (more specifically the Chic-Choc Mountains, Notre Dame, and Long Range Mountains) are an old and eroded range of mountains, approximately 380 million years in age. The Canadian Shield, a hilly region of lakes and swamps, stretches across northern Canada and has some of the oldest rocks on Earth. [8], Since the end of the last glacial period, Canada has consisted of eight distinct forest regions, including extensive boreal forest on the Canadian Shield;[9] 42 percent of the land acreage of Canada is covered by forests (approximately 8 percent of the world's forested land), made up mostly of spruce, poplar and pine. The Peace, Athabasca and Liard Rivers, as well as Great Bear Lake and Great Slave Lake (respectively the largest and second largest lakes wholly enclosed by Canada) are significant elements of the Arctic watershed. Canada holds vast reserves of water: its rivers discharge nearly 7% of the world's renewable water supply,[52] it contains a quarter of the world's wetlands, and it has the third largest amount of glaciers (after Antarctica and Greenland). [54], The Atlantic watershed drains the entirety of the Atlantic provinces (parts of the Quebec-Labrador border are fixed at the Atlantic Ocean-Arctic Ocean continental divide), most of inhabited Quebec and large parts of southern Ontario. Boreal forests prevail throughout the country, ice is prominent in northerly Arctic regions and through the Rocky Mountains, and the relatively flat Canadian Prairies in the southwest facilitate productive agriculture. Choose your answers to the questions and click 'Next' to see the next set of questions. Because of extensive glaciation, Canada hosts more than two million lakes: of those that are entirely within Canada, more than 31,000 are between 3 and 100 square kilometres (1.2 and 38.6 sq mi) in area, while 563 are larger than 100 km2 (38.6 sq mi). The Canadian shield is also called the mineral house. Despite this, 79.7 percent of Canada's population resides in urban areas, where population densities are increasing. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. [55], The southernmost part of Alberta drains into the Gulf of Mexico through the Milk River and its tributaries. Get Free Access See Review. [47], The northeastern part of Alberta, northern parts of Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec, all of Labrador and the Great Northern Peninsula of Newfoundland, eastern mainland Northwest Territories, most of Nunavut's mainland and, of its Arctic Archipelago, Baffin Island and significant bands through Somerset, Southampton, Devon and Ellesmere islands are located on a vast rock base known as the Canadian Shield. There are 10 provinces and 3 territories in Canada. The Arctic Lowlands and Hudson Bay lowlands comprise a substantial part of the geographic region often designated as the Canadian Shield (in contrast to the sole geologic area). Canada has produced a Biodiversity Action Plan in response to the 1992 international accord; the plan addresses conservation of endangered species and certain habitats. Cities with over 1 million residents. The Seven Year’s War, in which England sought to gain more control of the country, then began in 1756. Western Canada has many volcanoes and is part of the Pacific Ring of Fire, a system of volcanoes found around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. In almost every part of Canada there are lakes and rivers. There are pillow lavas in the Northwest Territories that are about 2.6 billion years old and are preserved in the Cameron River Volcanic Belt. In 1534, French explorer Jacques Cartier discovered the St. Lawrence River while searching for fur and shortly thereafter, he claimed Canada for France. The first people to live in Canada were the Inuit and First Nation Peoples. The Geography of Canada. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. The southern parts of Quebec and Ontario, in the section of the Great Lakes (bordered entirely by Ontario on the Canadian side) and St. Lawrence basin (often called St. Lawrence Lowlands), is another particularly rich sedimentary plain. There are also some French-speaking communities in other portions of Canada, mostly on the east coast, but the majority of the rest of the country speaks English. Despite this, some areas such as the Cypress Hills and the Alberta Badlands are quite hilly and the prairie provinces contain large areas of forest such as the Mid-Continental Canadian forests.

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