Herbivory on plants elicits a physiological response that can create an over compensation (excess) regrowth of tissue (Lennartsson et al., 1998). No differences were found with the number of teredinid tunnels in sections among the three mangrove localities (PERMANOVA, F Mangrove response to attack by a root boring isopod: root repair versus architectural modification. Hanley, M. E., B. Digital images were taken of each treated root over 12 months. Responses of 81 R. stylosa roots to three levels of experimental damage were investigated: superficial, moderate and severe. Previous studies have successfully used digital analysis to predict tannin content based on the colour of the image. Root tissue loss was also great, with −31 ± 13% loss of the original circumference (Fig. Induced plant responses to herbivory. In Costa Rica, the destructive effect of the sphaeromid, Sphaeroma peruvianum Richardson, 1910 on live mangrove root tissues can reduce the growth rates of Rhizophora mangle L. aerial prop roots by 50% (Perry, 1988). But regrowth was greatest in sections cut from moderately damaged roots. Rhizophora stylosa, etc ; cortex; necrosis; mangrove forests; plant-insect relations; herbivores; regrowth; tannins; larvae; prop roots; cylinders; Show all 11 Subjects Abstract: This study examines the ability of live Rhizophora stylosa prop roots to heal damaged tissues and defend against herbivorous attack from teredinids in three mangrove forests. Marine Ecology Progress Series 231: 85–90. Sites were chosen because damaged roots and teredinid activity were frequent. Botanical Review 18: 655–679. In the study site, many roots were damaged either by use of tools during firewood collection or by physical abrasion. CAS Singapore Science Centre. It is thought that larval teredinids are unable to infest living trees (Rimmer et al., 1983; Kohlmeyer et al., 1995) as the bark is tannin-rich (Alongi, 1987; Borges et al., 2008). Herbivorous attack from sphaeromids and teredinids is different within mangroves. Ecology 80: 1713–1723. Rhizophora community is represented by three species, namely, R. apiculata, R. mucronata and R. stylosa, and two hybrids. Plants also express resistance to herbivory via strategies labelled as tolerance mechanisms (Paige, 1999; Brooks & Bell, 2002), defined as tissue repair and regrowth after exposure from stress. Parenchyma cell differentiation may change from generation of parenchyma to generation of cork and sclerenchyma cells (Bloch, 1952; Wier et al., 1996). Kimura, M. & H. Wada, 1989. Plant structural traits and their role in anti-herbivore defence. Thus, due to increases of suberin, the plants defence against infection and overall fitness may have been enhanced. The energy required to produce tannins can be costly (Agrawal et al., 1999; Karban et al., 1997). Guest editors: K. W. Krauss, I. C. Feller, D. A. Friess & R. R. Lewis III / Causes and Consequences of Mangrove Ecosystem Responses to an Ever-Changing Climate. For the superficially damaged roots, 40 sections were cut. Valuation, carbon sequestration potential and restoration of mangrove ecosystems in India. 4). Hydrobiologia 803, 333–344 (2017). This adaptation may be induced by over compensation of the tolerance mechanism (Haukioja & Koricheva, 2000; Brooks & Bell, 2002). stylosa (Griff.) This study benefited from discussions with Mike J Swift, and an unpublished study of MJS and SMC. Biotropica 3: 63–77. Rhizophora stylosa prop roots even when damaged prevent wood-boring teredinids from toppling the trees. The influence of mangrove-derived tannins on intertidal meiobenthos in tropical estuaries. Many roots subjected to experimental damage to the treatments became discoloured and black on the damaged areas. … Global Ecology and Biogeography 23: 726–743. If present, all teredinid tunnels in each section were counted. Biotropica 29: 440–451. ... (2007) p 38, Pl. The roots are then open to infection, and cell necrosis. The degree of tolerance can be expressed as compensation to the plants ability to tolerate herbivore attack (Strauss & Agrawal, 1999), or stress. Antipode 45: 275–293. Within all the sites, a total of 81 roots were used. All statistical analyses were performed using MINITAB (MINITAB Inc, version 13.20) and PRIMER 6.1 (PrimerE Ltd: Plymouth Routines in Multivariate Ecological Research). The percentage of red pixel intensity used as a proxy for tannin production from each damaged root (mean ± SE, n = 81). However, it is thought that sphaeromids are unable to burrow into older developed roots that reach the substratum due to the development of woody tissue in the older roots (Perry, 1988). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3106-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10750-017-3106-6, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Dartfish use teredinid tunnels in fallen mangrove wood as a low-tide refuge. Sites were chosen because damaged roots and teredinid activity were frequent. Experiments within the three sites were conducted in areas of each forest where teredinid populations thrive in areas of prolonged tidal immersion. & J. Carney, 2013. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Australian Journal of Ecology 16: 433–443. We are grateful to Operation Wallacea for arranging lodgings and visas. This study highlights the resilience and ability of mangroves to heal damaged roots and defend against woodborers. This level of damage allowed settlement for teredinids, rendering the root vulnerable to tissue and water loss, and the root may then die. The analyses of the sections revealed that of the moderately damaged roots, two roots out of 81 roots were colonised by teredinids. Rimmer, M. A., S. L. Battaglene & P. L. Dostine, 1983. Root damage and aboveground herbivory change concentration and composition of pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Senecio jacobaea. The greatest amount of tissue regrowth was found in the moderately damaged roots (PERMANOVA, F Of these, R. apiculata and R. mucronata form the dominant members of the community and commonly distributed in mangrove areas while R. stylosa … The vascular cylinder is the water-carrying component (Gill & Tomlinson, 1971), and the inner limit of the cortex is tannin-free (Gill & Tomlinson, 1971). Fifty-seven percent of those roots exceeded their initial size before surgery by 13 ± 2.4%. A Fisher’s exact test with a post hoc pairwise test was used to test for differences between sections with or without lateral outgrowth of new vascular tissue after 12 months. In each mangrove forest, three plots measuring 10 m × 10 m were designated for the experimental damage. After 12 months, no differences of tissue loss and regrowth were detected between the three mangrove localities (GLM, F Revista Brasileira de Ciência Avícola 14: 57–62. 2,108 = 1.1, P ≥ 0.05). A. van Veen & E. van der Meijden, 2004. There are many extrinsic and intrinsic factors for which the plant needs to compensate within each forest, e.g. Feller, I. C., 2002. Root death may generate woody detritus within the mangrove forests. Iheringia Series of Zoology 98: 17–23. Differential colonization of roots of Rhizophora mangle by the woodboring isopod Sphaeroma terebrans as a mechanism to increase root density. Mangrove plants may likely use the tolerance strategy against damage or stress (Brooks & Bell, 2002), as many other angiosperms have evolved this response to combat herbivore attack (Strauss & Agrawal, 1999). Many moderately damaged roots had a remarkable over compensation of tissue regrowth when compared with superficially and severely damaged roots. We also extend many thanks to Clare Taubman for creating the summary diagram. The stilt roots are flexible and were traditionally used for making bows[490. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 20: 331–348. Rhizophora stylosa Griff. The blackening of the wounds in the roots is due to the formation of a tannin-ferric iron complex, which counteracts potential toxicity to the roots via oxidation (Kimura & Wada, 1989). Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Portsmouth, Ferry Road, Portsmouth, PO4 9LY, UK, You can also search for this author in Plants subject to herbivory may outperform uneaten plants, and plants with an over compensatory level of tissue regrowth produce greater numbers of seeds when compared with uneaten conspecifics (Paige, 1992). The vascular cylinder is tannin-free (Gill & Tomlinson, 1971), making teredinid settlement possible (Turner, 1976). The parenchyma in the cortex contains numerous tanniniferous cells (Gill & Tomlinson, 1971), and the tannins these generate may prevent the herbivores from attacking (Feller, 2002). Dense soils increased total root biomass and primary root diameter, while the primary root length decreased. The variation of tissue loss and regrowth between the different surgeries may be due to the degree of stress tolerance of each root. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 34: 355–357. Wound-initiated tissue regrowth, also known as wound periderm, compartmentalises wounds and may prevent the spread of potential pathogens to healthy plant tissues (Wier et al., 1996). Uses of R. stylosa in traditional medicine have not been reported. For each of the levels of damage, eight roots were used. Nemeth, R., A. Ott, P. Takáts & M. Bak, 2013. Increased plant growth may ultimately achieve greater fitness (Paige & Whitham, 1987). Filho, C. S., C. H. Tagliaro & C. R. Beasley, 2008. Sections cut from superficially damaged roots had almost no measurable changes. All root circumferences and scar depths were measured before and during a 12-month period using a tape measure and callipers. The wood of Rhizophora stylosa has very high density and therefore very heavy wood which makes it very attractive as timber for boats, houses, fences and also fire wood. Conversely, herbivory may be beneficial (Paige & Whitham, 1987; Paige, 1992). Regrowth following ungulate herbivory in Ipomopsis aggregata: geographic evidence for overcompensation. Brooks, R. A. Differences of numbers of teredinid tunnels in sections exposed to the surgical treatments among the three mangrove localities were examined using PERMANOVA in Bray-Curtis matrices and post hoc pairwise tests. Some factors involved in the settlement and metamorphosis of marine bivalve larvae. The boundaries of the boxes indicate the 1st and 3rd quartiles. Cribb, … Paige, K. N., 1992. Ecophysiological responses of viviparous mangrove Rhizophora stylosa seedlings to simulated sea-level rise.As the only forests situated at the transition between land and sea, mangrove forests constitute one of the first ecosystems vulnerable to rising sea level. Buy Rhizophora stylosa Stilted Mangrove, select amount and size and put your mangrove to the shopping basket. McIvor, A. L., Möller, I., Spencer, T., & Spalding, M., 2013. More than 95% of roots exposed to superficial damage had made a complete recovery. Cribb, A.B. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 35: 101–108. Rhizophora stylosa. Spatial and temporal variability in growth of Rhizophora mangle saplings on coral cays: links with variation in insolation, herbivory, and local sedimentation rate. Rhizophora stylosa root tissue recovery and loss after 12 months exposure to the three levels of root damage. A. Agrawal & M. Mangel, 1997. The body language of trees, a handbook for failure analysis. & P. A. Daniel, 1989. Lee, S. Y., J. H. Primavera, F. Dahdouh-Guebas & S. Record, 2014. When tissue patterns arise that differ from the norm, or when a lack of pattern is encountered, the cellular regrowth can be classified as atypical (Bloch, 1952). To estimate tannin content, we focussed on red light intensity in each image. A Guide to the Mangroves of Singapore I (Plant Diversity). Laboratory screening of tropical hardwoods for natural resistance to the marine borer Limnoria quadripunctata: the role of leachable and non-leachable factors. Basic and Applied Ecology 5: 253–260. The total effect of minor damage can therefore negatively affect trees by diverting energy to repairing the damage (Brooks & Bell, 2002), compromising root and tree fitness. PubMed Google Scholar. The fruits are ovoid to pear-shaped and measure up to 4 cm (2 in) long.. Distribution and habitat. In mangrove forests, trees are attacked by both terrestrial and marine animals (Ellison & Farnsworth, 1996; Feller, 2002). Cragg, S. M. & I. W. Hendy, 2010. The third treatment (severe) consisted of additionally removing the inner radial wall of the vascular cylinder, exposing the inner pith (Fig. Karban, R., A. The role of herbivory by wood-boring insects in mangrove ecosystems in Belize. No difference of mortality was found between the moderately and severely damaged roots (Fisher’s Pairwise Comparison). Relationship between color and tannin content in sorghum grain: application of image analysis and artificial neural network. Tissue regrowth was minimal with an increase of 3% ± 0.3% of the original circumference before surgery. In addition, exposure of the woody tissues may induce settlement behaviour, while the spongy cortex layer may not provide the necessary settlement cues. Stilt roots arises from the trunk or branches of the mangrove and grows toward the soil where the stilt root will develop an underground root system. A The removal of the periderm layer (superficial damage), B removal of the cortex tissue (moderate damage) exposing the vascular cylinder, and C removal of the vascular cylinder, (severe damage). 5). Ecology 79: 1061–1072. Holzforschung 62: 99–111. Part of Springer Nature. The greatest percentage of tissue regrowth was 21% greater in circumference compared to its original size. Phenol content, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of mangrove plants in Micronesia. Mangrove wood herbivores range from insects such as beetles (Perry, 1988; Feller & Mathis, 1997) to wood-boring aquatic molluscs (Teredinidae) (Robertson & Daniel, 1989).
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