applied the term essence to that which things in a category have in common and without which they cannot be members of that category (for example, rationality is the essence of man; without rationality a creature cannot be a man). For example, murder breaks a universal, objective and natural moral law and not merely an advantageous, socially or ethically constructed one. Even withinphilosophy, the term… This causal relationship is unidirectional; an observable feature of an entity does not define the underlying essence (Dar-Nimrod & Heine, 2011). The implications of psychological essentialism are numerous. Realism was started so that people can know the reality of actual world. Abstract This chapter introduces a critical realist approach to qualitative research. Feminist theorist Elizabeth Grosz states in her 1995 publication Space, time and perversion: essays on the politics of bodies that essentialism "entails the belief that those characteristics defined as women's essence are shared in common by all women at all times. Realist literature is considered as literary realism. The elements within each branch are positioned according to their congruence with elements from other branches so when read from top to bottom (or bottom to top), elements from one branch align with elements from another (eg., critical realist ontology, constructionist epistemology, and interpretivist philosophical perspectives). The second is innate potential: the assumption that an object will fulfill its predetermined course of development (Kanovsky, 2007). There are many different forms of relativism, with a great deal of variation in scope and differing degrees of controversy among them. Critical Realism (CR) states that knowledge (epistemology) is different from being or existence (ontology). There is a difference between metaphysical essentialism (see above) and psychological essentialism, the latter referring not to an actual claim about the world but a claim about a way of representing entities in cognitions (Medin, 1989). Empirical knowledge is developed from experience of a relational universe whose components and attributes are defined and measured in terms of intellectually constructed laws. It can be argued that there is a shift in the way that children represent entities, from not understanding the causal mechanism of the underlying essence to showing sufficient understanding (Demoulin, Leyens & Yzerbyt, 2006). Observable changes in features of an entity are not salient enough to alter its essential characteristics. Naïve realism argues we perceive the world directly. 1- In Critical Realism: Essential Readings, edited by Margaret Archer, Roy Bhaskar, Andrew Collier, Tony Lawson, and Alan Norrie, IX - XXIV. In medical sciences this can lead to a reified view of identities –– for example assuming that differences in hypertension in Afro-American populations are due to racial difference rather than social causes –– leading to fallacious conclusions and potentially unequal treatment. It is permanent, unalterable, and eternal, and is present in every possible world. All objects are composed of matter, they occupy space, and have properties such as size, shape, texture, smell, taste and colour. For example, statements like "a puppy is a young dog" should be read from right to left, as an answer to "What shall we call a young dog"; never from left to right as an answer to "What is a puppy?". Plato's forms are regarded as patriarchs to essentialist dogma simply because they are a case of what is intrinsic and a-contextual of objects—the abstract properties that makes them what they are. – The realist epistemology in this paradigm gives rise to the constructivist research tradition, and the idealist epistemology results in the subjectivist tradition of inquiry. Essentialism, in its broadest sense, is any philosophy that acknowledges the primacy of essence. In Categories, Aristotle similarly proposed that all objects have a substance that, as George Lakoff put it, "make the thing what it is, and without which it would be not that kind of thing". Classical humanism has an essentialist conception of the human, in its endorsement of the notion of an eternal and unchangeable human nature. Plato believed that the universe was perfect and that its observed imperfections came from man's limited perception of it. Essentialism is the view that every entity has a set of attributes that are necessary to its identity and function. It is the particular form imposed that gives some matter its identity—its quiddity or "whatness" (i.e., its "what it is"). Unlike existentialism, which posits "being" as the fundamental reality, the essentialist ontology must be approached from a metaphysical perspective. Essentialism has emerged as an important concept in psychology, particularly developmental psychology. The argument introduces some type of … What does EPISTEMOLOGICAL REALISM mean? Epistemology has many branches that include essentialism, historical perspective, perennialsm, progressivism, empiricism, idealism, rationalism, constructivism etc. Popper himself is a realist as opposed to an idealist, but a methodological nominalist as opposed to an essentialist.  (Toosi & Ambady, 2011). It implies a limit of the variations and possibilities of change—it is not possible for a subject to act in a manner contrary to her essence. An analysis of the trajectory of epistemology in education shows that research started with the work of Piaget, and it was the most important shift in the way epistemology was studied. Epistemological realism claims that it is possible to obtain knowledge about mind‐independent reality. From the primitive stage of polytheism, religion evolves towards monotheism as the ultimate belief of the theological stage. Software-enabled technologies and urban big data have become essential to the functioning of cities. Essentialist and reductive thinking lies at the core of many hateful and xenophobic ideologies. This is known as your research philosophy and is done through your ontology and epistemology. 6uôËe5ò©LËß-Øx87±Më@kxNËª¥¹X}îæCÝ_zù®n)¨o»i»Ëe¢*!¤ØÔ)HqÌiY.xU´L! In Plato's philosophy (in particular, the Timaeus and the Philebus), things were said to come into being by the action of a demiurge who works to form chaos into ordered entities. Starting in the 1980s, some feminist writers have put forward essentialist theories about gender and science. For Plato, there were two realities: the "essential" or ideal and the "perceived". Research then becomes objective, measurable, predictable and controllable. Suppe, 1977, p. 618); realism has been prominent in other areas of philosophy as well (Miller, 2010).  In biology and other natural sciences, essentialism provided the rationale for taxonomy at least until the time of Charles Darwin; the role and importance of essentialism in biology is still a matter of debate. Versions of this argument (or cluster of arguments) appearin René Descartes’s Meditations,Augustine’s Against the Academicians, and several of theancient and modern skeptics (e.g., Sextus Empiricus, Michel deMontaigne). It therefore functions at a level similar to that occupied by such philosophies as Positivism and Interpretivism. Empiricism and rationalism can be specified as the two major constructing debates within the field of epistemological study that relates to business studies. The craftsperson requires hyle (timber or wood) and a model, plan or idea in her own mind, according to which the wood is worked to give it the indicated contour or form (morphe). observed. In multiple studies in India and the United States, Rad & Ginges (2018) showed that in lay view, a person's nationality is considerably fixed at birth, even if that person is adopted and raised by a family of another nationality at day one and never told about their origin. Thus, according to critical realists, unobservable … A sound epistemology is necessary for the development of sound thinking and reasoning, which is why so much philosophical literature can involve seemingly arcane discussions … Post-colonial theorists such as Edward Said insisted that essentialism was the "defining mode" of "Western" historiography and ethnography until the nineteenth century and even after, according to Touraj Atabaki, manifesting itself in the historiography of the Middle East and Central Asia as Eurocentrism, over-generalization, and reductionism.. The question of how our perceptual beliefs are justified orknown can be approached by first considering the question ofwhether they are justified or known. According to this criterion, essences predict developments in entities that will occur throughout its lifespan. Consequently, urban operational governance and city services are becoming highly responsive to a form of data-driven urbanism that is the key mode of production for smart cities. But the core meaning of realism is, I believe, epistemological. Optimists who believe that, in the long run, goodwill prevail are often called “idealists”. Critical realism accepts fallibilism as a via media between scepticism and dogmatism: scientific knowledge is uncertain, incomplete, and truthlike. , In feminist theory and gender studies, gender essentialism is the attribution of fixed essences to men and women – this idea that men and women are fundamentally different continues to be a matter of contention. Plato proposed that these ideas are eternal and vastly superior to their manifestations, and that we understand these manifestations in the material world by comparing and relating them to their respective ideal form.
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